Cohort studies are observational analytical studies. As mentioned in my previous blog (http://blog.manuscriptedit.com/2014/02/overview-different-analytical-study-designs-medical-research/), the word ‘cohort’ is derived from the Latin word ‘cohors’, which means unit. For conducting cohort type of studies, the study population is chosen from general population both exposed to a certain agent suspected for disease development and unexposed to the cause. The population is followed for a longer period of time. The incidence in disease development in exposed group is compared with the non-exposed group. Therefore, the objective of a cohort study is to find out association between a suspected cause(s) and disease. If performed correctly, cohort studies can predict results comparable to the experimental analytical studies. The following measurements can be done in a cohort study design: absolute risk or incidence, relative risk (risk ratio or rate ratio), risk difference, and attributable proportion. Cohort studies are classified as prospective and retrospective studies based on the timing of enrollment of subjects and disease outcome.
A researcher, while designing any analytical study in medical research, should be aware of few basic terms in epidemiology required to measure disease risk and association. This blog article focuses on defining those terms used for calculating disease risk and association. As mentioned above, there are two different types of measurements: Measures of risk and Measures of association.
Measures of Risk
Risk is defined as the probability of an individual developing a condition or disease over a period of time.
Risk = Chances of something to happen/ Chances of all things to happen
Writing a book review is an extremely resourceful task that includes an extensive variety of skills. Writing a book review is not confined to certain disciplines as a wide range of subjects have book review tasks where the writer evaluates a book after carefully reading it entirely. While writing a book review, writers should incorporate some details about the chief aspects of the book, like character, plot, theme and setting. In order to write an effective book review, it is essential to have the reviewer’s outlook of how well the author has pursued in using those aspects.
India’s first markets have for millennia attracted people: to conquer, to plunder, to settle, to prosper, and to leave behind a living legacy long after they sailed into the sunset as their fortunes ebbed. What attracted them to this land of gold and honey was its abundant wealth; they came to buy in the booming bazaars and to export India’s diverse high quality produce and products. India’s first civilization, which spread from its type-site Harappa in Punjab (in present-day Pakistan) to Kutch, the Ganga valley, and even further south to coastal Maharashtra and Karnataka, bears ample evidence of the existence of such flourishing markets and port towns in proto-historic India.
In medical research, it is important for a researcher to know about different analytical studies. The objectives of different analytical studies are different, and each study aims to determine different aspects of a disease(s) such as prevalence, incidence, cause, prognosis, or effect of treatment. Therefore, it is essential to identify the appropriate analytical study associated with certain objectives. Analytical studies are classified as experimental and observational studies. While in an experimental study, the investigator examines the effect of presence or absence of certain intervention(s), he does not need to intervene in a observational study, rather he observes and assesses the relation between exposure and disease variable. Interventional studies or clinical trials fall under the category of experimental study where investigator assigns the exposure status. Observational studies are of four types: cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal studies
Whether or not an audience will read the whole piece of content often relies on the effectiveness of its heading. Thus, for almost every kind of content, the heading is the most vital part. Due to this, every writer tries his best to write a heading that is, not only attractive and appealing, but also impressive. Although there is no particular method for creating an efficient title, there are definite principles that you can pursue to come about with headings that grasp attention. The present article on “Writing Headings” provides some basic tips that should lead you toward that success.
Why Editing Matters?
Why editing matters ? Has this question crossed your mind? How many times have you come across a written piece in a newspaper, magazine, webpage or even a book and wondered where are the editors? It goes without saying that a single typographical error in a reading can hamper the writer’s as well as the publication’s reputation. Though, in this case the editors may not be at fault. Perhaps, the editors had done their best and the error was the result of a misprint. Nevertheless, there’s no denying the fact that errors hamper the flow of any written piece and are a source of discomfit for readers.
We live in an era of nanomaterials, nanotechnology, and nanoscience. What is so special about this nano world? How different is it from the macroscopic world of conventional bulk materials? How size influences the difference in properties in these two distinct worlds, although the basic material is same? For example, the properties of gold nanoparticles are distinctly different from the bulk gold. One simple answer is nanoparticles consist of fewer atoms to few thousand atoms while the bulk materials generally composed of billions of atoms. Look at the image below. At nanoscale, gold does not look even yellow! All of us know that gold (in bulk) is an inert metal. However, the same metal at nanosize of about 5 nm works as a catalyst in oxidizing carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, size does influence the property. But, how? What happens when a material breaks down to nanoscale? Part of the answer lies in the number of surface atoms. Let’s elaborate it. We know that at bulk state gold forms face centered cubic (fcc) lattice where each gold atom remains surrounded by 12 gold atoms, even the gold atoms at surface is surrounded by six adjacent atoms. In a gold nanoparticle, a higher number of atoms sit at the surface, and surface atoms are always more reactive. These large numbers of exposed atoms in gold nanoparticles compared to the bulk material enable gold nanoparticles to function as a catalyst.
Since the 1980s, Japan has emerged at the forefront of research in several fields and has made path-breaking contributions in the global arena. This is the outcome of significant investment in R&D activities and the centers of excellence in the form of more than 30 leading universities. In fact, together with the U.S. and Europe, Japan ranks among the topmost countries as a proven leader in the global effort toward research and development.
Globalization of academic research is a reality in the contemporary world. National boundaries are getting obliterated because of the Internet and instant electronic communication. In fact, in the last few years, there is an increasing collaboration among researchers in science, humanities, and the arts from around the world to produce results that have a global impact. In statistical terms, a report by the National Science Foundation confirms that 6,477 new international research alliances were formed in the 1990s, and this is only a fraction of the international research alliances in the 2000s.